On them it is possible to show how the degree grid is transferred by designing on the cylinder, a cone.

and 1:83 million).

In addition to these educational globes, there are so-called induction (black) globes. They have a black surface with a degree grid, the contours of the continents. Used to study geographical coordinates. You can write on them with chalk, point and determine their coordinates.

There are also projection globes with a degree grid made of wire or glass without a solid surface. Serve to get acquainted with cartographic projections. On them it is possible to show how the degree grid is transferred by designing on the cylinder, a cone.

It is advisable to use the globe when studying the initial course of geography, geography of continents and countries.

One of the methods of working with a map is to develop spatial and large-scale landmarks. Students must master the location of the most important objects and remember their size. Such large-scale landmarks can be the length of the Black Sea from west to east (1000 km), the Caspian Sea from north to south (1000 km), the distance Kiev-Moscow (700 km), the length of the island of Sakhalin (1000 km), the length of the Red Sea) etc. Spatial and scale landmarks are landmarks for marking other objects, determining their size, size, which makes it possible to find objects on maps of different scale and subject matter.

The main type of work with maps – description, characteristics of objects. Descriptions are different in complexity. First, students learn to make descriptions of any one component of nature, economy (a separate plain, river, lake, geographical location, population, industry). Then we move on to a more complex description of the natural conditions of certain areas (including the physical and geographical characteristics of the Sahara, the Minsk Uplands), to the economic and geographical description of individual countries (eg, economic and geographical characteristics of Chile ).

Even more complex descriptions are the characteristics of nature, population, economy of the country and a comparative description of individual components of nature, population, farms, natural conditions, regions, countries. Usually descriptions of separate components are made on the general geographical and one of thematic maps. Comprehensive descriptions (physical and economic-geographical) are carried out on the basis of general geographical and thematic maps, using the technique of overlay, comparison of maps.

At any description the standard plan, the instruction is given. Basically all the information is taken from the maps. Initially, such descriptions are educational in nature, performed collectively under the guidance of a teacher. Students master the techniques of description. Then independently perform similar work. Descriptions on the map are performed by students independently in a familiar and unfamiliar learning situation. For the purpose of control final practical works with a card are carried out.

An important way to work with maps is to draw maps on the board when learning new material. At the same time it is possible to use stencils of territories. The explanation of the material is accompanied by a drawing of the map. It should be simple, reflect the main thing, not be complicated by details, its task is to bring the basic educational material to the mind of the student (for example, the scheme of the node of transport routes of Kiev).

The main thing is that the map is executed simultaneously with the explanation, is dynamic. Students can be encouraged to transfer the simplest maps to workbooks. During the test, the teacher may ask students to draw maps on the board.

An important task of studying geography is to master the geographical nomenclature. There is no geography without geographical names. Geographical names are addresses, passport data of objects. There is a mandatory nomenclature (specified in the program). In order to remember the geographical name and know the location of objects on the map, you should pronounce them more often, reproduce.

Each new name is pronounced clearly, difficult to pronounce names are written on the board and in the workbook. Students must know the characteristics of the object. At each lesson, knowledge of the map is tested. It is recommended not to replace it with a pronoun when learning a new name. The teacher should explain the origin of the geographical name. Toponymy often reflects the most significant features of objects (Mount Mont Blanc – “White Mountain”, the Yenisei River – “Big Water”).

Students’ work with the map is an integral part of every lesson. Only through this work can you teach a student to read a map.


Skuratovych O. Ya., Kovalenko RR, Kruglyk LI Geography: General geography. 6th grade. – K.: Zodiac-Eco, 2000. – 223p. Native land: Geography and local lore .. – K.: Prosvita, 1999 .– 97p. Geography of Ukrainian and neighboring lands. – Kyiv: Oberehy, 2005. Economic and social geography of the world .. – Kyiv: Artek, 2000. – 288 pp. Dolnytskyi Myron. Geography of Ukraine .. – Munich: Vernigora, 1947. – 91p.Dolnytsky Myron Geography of Ukraine. – Detroit: Motherland, 1953 .– 88p. Socio-economic geography of Ukraine. – Lviv: Svit, 2000 .– help writing an lab report for free 680p. Zastavny Fedir Dmytrovych Geography of Ukraine. – Lviv: Svit, 1994. Zastavny FD Economic and social geography of Ukraine .. – K.: Forum, 2000. – 240p.


Geography: steppe zone. Abstract

The purpose of the abstract – to specify and systematize knowledge about the features of the steppe zone, economic activity in the whole zone

No hills, no forests. No matter where you look, a smooth plain stretches to the very edge of the sky. And it seems: there is no end to it, no limits. Go where you want to go .. and what go! Jump on horseback, race in a car, on a plane – and everything will open before you the edges of the high sky, opening more and more spaces … And how many colors! And what a variety of red carnations, and purple sage, and golden butterbur, and many, many others… (steppe).

Definition of natural areas from descriptions and pictures

The steppe zone of Ukraine occupies 40% of the territory of Ukraine. It includes the southern part of Kharkiv, Kirovohrad region, Donetsk, Luhansk, Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhia, Kherson, Mykolaiv, Odessa, plains of the Republic of Crimea.

The natural features of the steppe are determined by its position in the south of the Eastern European plain.

The relief has both hills and lowlands. Priz., Pd. -x schemes of Volyn-Podilsky uplands, south. -xx. Pridn. Vysochyny and Donetsk ridge., Black Sea, Pryazovska and Pn. -Crimanian lowlands.

Compared to others, it receives the most heat, but definitely less precipitation. Average annual to = 75o on Mon. cx to +11 to the south. zah.

Ser. t ° January – 7 ° to 0 °, ser. t ° July + 21 ° to 23 °. Duration without frosty period 160-220 days.

The strip is far from the ocean, anticyclones do not reach the territory and precipitation changes (300-500 mm / year), and evaporation 700-1000 mm / year. Moisture deficiency is acute, especially during the growing season. Frequent droughts and dry winds occur almost every year, especially in the east. part.

Due to insufficient moisture, the river system is poorly developed.

Soils – chernozems. On Mon. – medium humus ordinary chernozems (7.2%, humus). They occupy 20% of the territory. Distributed in Mon. and center. part.

High fertility of steppe soils is due to the specifics of the soil-forming process. Herbaceous plants of the steppe, dying, form a lot of organic matter, which is decomposed by microorganisms. A small amount of precipitation in the steppes does not cause the leaching of nutritious soil into the lower, inaccessible to plants layers.

In the south. bands formed by low-humus southern chernozems (3.5-4.5% humus) are a small humus horizon (45-60 cm and chestnut and dark chestnut) (3-4.5% which have somewhat direct properties as chernozem (structurelessness, salinity). Some areas of the steppe are occupied by salt marshes – very saline soils, from which in dry climates easily soluble salts are not washed away.

In general, the soils of Ukraine have high fertility (chernozems account for more than 65% of all arable land). However, due to intensive agriculture, the humus content decreases, the content of harmful chemicals in the soil increases, salinity and acidity increase. All this requires precautions to ensure that the potential fertility of the soil is not reduced.

Cereals predominate among the plants: feather grass, lessing, Ukrainian hairy, furrowed sandpiper, coastal stokolos, celery, rye, tonkonig. From the weeds grow: kion narrow-leaved, spring mustard, tar tar, sage and drooping, wormwood, curlin. There are very few forests (3%).

From Mon. on the south. the density of vegetation liquefies as the aridity of the climate increases.

For the fauna, thorns are gray beetle, gray vole, steppe round, hamster, quail, kite, woodpecker, hoopoe, steppe lark, gray partridge, steppe viper, 40-striped slug, bar lizard.

The steppe zone is an important industrial and agricultural region. This is the most densely populated and developed area (in Donetsk – in 2100, per km2 in Ukraine – 84 people.)

Deposits of important minerals are concentrated in the steppe zone. As declarative. morgue. coal.

Ferrous metallurgy, coal, chemical, and machine-building industries are developed here. All industries are concentrated in large industrial centers: Luhansk, Zaporizhia, Donetsk, Mykolayiv, Kryvyi Rih, Kherson, Slovyansk.

The largest number of coal mines is located in Donetsk (Donetsk, Makeyevka, Yenakiieve) and Luhansk regions (Krasno don, Anthracite). Metallurgical giants operate in the steppes as “Zaporizhstal”. and machine building prom. Here the most mechanical engineering is developed – from: Lugansk locomotive, the Nikolaev shipbuilding, Kirovograd agricultural machines.

The steppe zone of Ukraine is not only an industrial region, it also has developed agriculture, especially agriculture.

Due to the fertile chernozem soils, almost half of all grain grown in the country is grown here.

The main cereals are: wheat, barley, corn, peas, millet, rice, which grow only here.

In the steppe is almost completely concentrated the cultivation of such technical crops as sunflower, as well as melons (melons, watermelons, humps, zucchini).

The steppes are famous for their gardens, which are grown mainly stone fruits: cherries, plums, apricots, cherries.

In the south. Of Ukraine (Mykolayiv and Kherson regions and the district of Crimea) are engaged in viticulture.

Due to the high dryness of the climate, the vegetation in the virgin unploughed steppes consists of drought-resistant plants.